The Inca Empire flourished on the west coast of South America from 13th to 16th century. They conquered this region after a series of wars against Indians tribes. The Incas first came on the Peruvian scene somewhere around 1300 A.D. They were then just a small group. During their first two hundreds years they were competitors of small tribes. At the time of Emperor Pachacuti Incas became the most powerful nation in South America. And they continued to remained same for another hundred years. After his death his son Topa Inca continued to conquest both to north and south direction. Under his reign the Empire had spread into Central Chile and Northern Ecuador. The next Inca Emperor Huayna Capac got hold of the remaining Andes. He even spread his conquest up to Bolivia. Before he died he separated his reign into two parts to be ruled by his two sons Huascar and Atahualpa. Sad thing was that still after his death there was a great civil war between the two brothers. At 1532 Atahuallpa got his brother killed and became the Emperor of Inca. At the same time ( on 1532) Spaniards arrived.
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
Topu Inca Yupanqui
Huascar and Atahualpa
How the Incas lost
When a Spaniard boat seizedanother boat with Inca Nobleman on the west coast of South America on 1532, theSun of Inca started to set. On that very year Inca emperor Atahualpa wasmurdered by Spaniards. Francisco Pizarro , a fifty six year old Spanish fortunetraveler took hold of Inca region very soon.
When Francisco first met the Incaboat with nobleman who were wearing silver and gold ornaments, he realized thata fortune was awaiting him. He went back to Spain only to get the permission ofRoyal Crown of Spain to conquer the lands of south. On 1532 he came back with180 men.
Atahualpa arrested andkilled..
When Pizarro came back herealized that the civil war between two brother weaken the Inca. But IncaAtahualpa was not scared at all of Pizzaro. Since he knew Pizzaro's force hadbeen composed of less than 200 people only. Whereas he had 30,000 soldiersresting around his palace. He went to meet Hernando de Soto on Hernando'sinvitation to inspect his camp. At the entrance there was a quarrel between Incaand sentries. A widely disputed legend claims that Atahualpa was handed a Bibleand threw it on the floor, the Spanish supposedly interpreted this action asadequate reason for war. Though some chroniclers suggest that Atahualpa simplydidn't understand the notion of a book, others portray Atahualpa as beinggenuinely curious & inquisitive in the situation. Regardless, Hernando tookthe advantages of it and Inca Atahualpa was arrested and was made prisoner bySpaniards. Atahualpa never ordered his soldier to fight. Since Indians were veryobedient and didn't get any orders they didn't take any action. They were stillwaiting for orders, which never came. Still it is a mystery why Atahualpa didnot ask his soldiers to fight. If he would ordered they could easily defeated,as there were not much Spanish soldiers. Atahualpa was asked ransom and afterthe ransom of enormous gold were collected , Inca Atahualpa was murdered bySpaniards.
After a while Pizzaro placedManco II, a younger brother of Huascar as Emperor. In 1536 Manco II organized anarmy and captured Cusco with 200,000 men. Spaniards got help from other cornersand strengthened and came back to fight with Manco II. Spaniards recaptured Cusco.Manco II was a brave man, he shifted to Vilcabamba the Old and continuedguerrilla warfare all over the Empire.
Battle from Vilcabamba ..
Very soon Manco built a longpalace in Vitcos ( a place in Vilcabamba). Here he created a strong base fromwhere he could fight against the Spanish. His raids became so frequent anddestructive that Pizarro sent several expeditions against him. But in all casesthey were defeated by Manco's army. In 1542 some Spaniard came to Vitcos andwanted shelter from Manco. Manco took them in and treated them kindly. Theybecame friends to him afterwards. Later he learned lots of things from them.Sometimes he played chess with them or bowled and threw quoits on a green nearthe "long palace". But one day in 1545, he was killed by the Spaniardsin the playfield. After this tragic incident the Spanish were killed brutally.
After the death of Manco II hiseldest son Sayri Tupac became the Inca ruler. Sayri Tupac was not like hisfather. He was a pleasure loving young man. Against the advice Inca nobles , heaccepted Spanish viceroy's invitation to leave the Inca stronghold and establishkind of puppet royal court in Cusco. After his death Manco's second son TituCusi became New Inca. He was a brave man like his father and freedom in life inVitcos to living in the shadow of the Spaniards at Cusco. He discontinued the coonection with Spaniards. When he died in 1570 his brother Tupac Amaru became Inca. Tupac Amaru was neither like his brother or his father. When viceroy sent some people to meet him, as per advice of his nobleman he killed them. Which made the viceroy furious. On 1571 finally Tupac Amaru, the last Inca was captured and beheaded. With which the Inca reigncame to an end.